Y-Y, Y-Delta, Delta-Y, etc.
A Y-connected load suffers an even worse fate (Figure below) with the same winding failure in a Y-connected source. One distinct advantage of a Δ-connected system is its lack of a neutral wire.
Let’s see how this works in an example circuit: (Figure below) The load on the Δ source is wired in a Δ. Phase voltage refers to the voltage measured across any one component (source winding or load impedance) in a balanced three-phase source or load.
Obviously the total power in the 3 Phase Delta Connection is the sum of the powers in the three phases. where Φ is the phase angle between phase voltage and phase current. 9.28(b), all the line currents are equal in magnitude but displaced by 120° from one another; and the line currents are 30° behind the respective phase currents. One quick check of this is to use Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law to see if the three voltages around the loop add up to zero. This is same in all the remaining lines of the n-phase system. Line voltage refers to the amount of voltage measured between any two line conductors in a balanced three-phase system. Take close notice of the polarity for each winding in the figure below. With a Y-connected system, a neutral wire was needed in case one of the phase loads were to fail open (or be turned off), in order to keep the phase voltages at the load from changing. The three conductors leading away from the voltage sources (windings) toward a load are typically called lines, while the windings themselves are typically called phases. It is evident from the Fig. What conditions typically cause a polyphase system to become unbalanced?
This arrangement is referred to as mesh connection because it forms a closed circuit.
Connecting three voltage sources together creates a "Y" or "star" configuation.
The usefulness of this connection scheme should be clearly evident: three different voltage levels may be accessed for use in powering circuits. 9.28(a), indicate the direction of currents when they are assumed to be positive and not their actual direction at a particular instant. Three-phase, three-wire Δ connection has no common. Questions such as this are really nothing more than pattern-recognition exercises, but like all skills this does not come naturally to all people, and practice improves it! Where phase and line quantities are unequal, determine which is larger. Figure 9.30(a) shows part of an n-phase balanced mesh system. Delta Connection Example Circuit Analysis. If we draw a circuit showing each voltage source to be a coil of wire (alternator or transformer winding) and do some slight rearranging, the “Y” configuration becomes more obvious in Figure below. In the Y-Y system, with no neutral wire, one of the load phases will completely lose power, while the voltages of the other two load phases will be reduced to 86.7 % of normal. Here’s a hint: if you were to repair the neutral wire and take current measurements with a digital instrument (using a clamp-on current probe, for safety), you would find that the predominant frequency of the current is 180 Hz, rather than 60 Hz. In many cases, a heavier-duty transformer is used for coil AC than for coils AB or BC due to the number of 120 volt loads. In this case, two load resistances suffer reduced voltage while the third loses supply voltage completely!
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